Technology is the making, modification, usage, and knowledge of: tools, or any physical item that can be used to achieve a goal, especially if the item is not consumed in the process; machines, a powered tool consisting of one or more parts that is constructed to achieve a particular goal; techniques; crafts, a profession that requires some particular kind of skilled work; system, a set of interacting or interdependent components forming an integrated whole or a set of elements (often called “components”) and relationships which are different from relationships of the set or its elements to other elements or sets; and methods of organization. It is in order to solve a problem, improve a preexisting solution to a problem, achieve a goal or perform a specific function. It can also refer to the collection of such tools, machinery, modifications, arrangements and procedures. Technologies significantly affect humans as well as other animal species’ ability to control and adapt to their natural environments.
The word “technology” comes from the Greek words (“ellīnikī glōssa,” an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages: “τεχνολογία” (technología); from “τέχνη” (techno”), meaning “art, skill, craft,” and “-λογία” (“-logía”), meaning “study of-.” The term can be either be applied generally or to specific areas: examples include “construction technology,” medical technology,” and information technology.”
The human species’ use of technology began with the conversion of natural resources into simple tools. The prehistorical discovery, or the discovery from the span of time before recorded history, of the ability to control fire by early humans, a turning point in the cultural aspect of human evolution that allowed humans to cook food and obtain warmth and protection, increased the available sources of food; and the invention of the wheel, a circular component that is intended to rotate on an axial bearing, helped in traveling in and controlling their environment.
Recent technological developments have lessened physical barriers to communication, or the activity of conveying information through the exchange of thoughts messages or information, as by speech, visuals, signals writing or behavior, and allowed humans to interact freely on a global scale. This includes: the printing press, a device for evenly printing ink onto a print medium (Substrate) such as paper or cloth; the telephone, colloquially referred to as a “phone,” a telecommunications device that transmits and receives sounds, usually the human voice; and the Internet, a global system of interconnected computer networks that use the standard Internet protocol suite (often called TCP/IP, although not all applications use TCP) to serve billions of users worldwide.
However, not all technology has been used of a peaceful purposes; the development of weapons, “arms, or “armaments,” are tools or instruments used in order to inflict damage or harm to living beings–physical or mental–artificial structures, or systems, of ever-increasing destructive power has progressed throughout history: from clubs, the simplest of all weapons, to nuclear weapons, explosive devices that derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions, either fission or a combination of fission and fusion.
Technology has affected human society–a group of people related to each other through persistent relations, or a large social grouping sharing the same geographical or virtual territory, subject to the same political authority and dominant cultural expectations–and its surroundings in a number of ways.
In many societies, technology has helped develop more advanced economies, which consists of the economic systems of a country or other area; the labor capital, and land resources; and the manufacturing, production, trade, distribution, and consumption of goods and services of that area. This includes today’s global economy, or the increasing economic interdependence of national economies across the world through a rapid increase in cross-border movement of goods, service, technology and capital. It has allowed the rise of a leisure class, a concept on the social sciences and political Mattis theory centered on models of social stratification in which the people are grouped as people who has a lot of “free time,” or time spent away from business, work, and domestic chores.
Many technological processes produce unwanted by-products, known as pollution, or the introduction of contaminants into the neutral environment that cause adverse change, and deplete natural resources, to the detriment of the Earth–the third planet from the Sun, and the densest and fifth-largest of the eight planets in the Solar System–and its natural environment, encompassing all living and nonliving things occurring naturally on Earth or some region thereof.
Various implementations of technology influence the values of a society–an extremely absolute or relative ethical value, the assumption of which can be the basis for ethical action–and new technology often raises new ethical questions. Examples include the rise of the notion of efficiency in terms of human productivity, a term originally applied only to machines, and the challenge of traditional norms.
Philosophical debates have arisen over the present and future use of technology in society, with disagreements over whether technology improves the human condition, encompassing the unique and believed to be inescapable features of being human, or worsens it.
The following and similar movements criticize the pervasiveness of technology in the modern world, saying that it harms the environment and alienates people: Neo-Luddism, a personal world view opposing many forms of modern technology; and anarcho-primitivism, an anarchist critique of the origins and progress of civilization.
Proponents of ideologies like the following, however, view continued technological progress as beneficial to society and the human condition: transhumanism, abbreviated as “H+” or “h+,” an international intellectual and cultural movement that affirms the possibility and desirability of fundamentally transforming the human condition by developing and making widely available technologies to eliminate aging and to greatly enhance human intellectual, physical and psychological capacities; and techno/techno-progressivism, or tech/techno progressivism a stance of active support for the convergence of technological change and social change.
Indeed, until recently, it was believed that the development of technology was restricted only to human beings, but recent scientific studies indicate that other primates, or mammals of the order “Primates,” which contains prosimians and simians, and certain dolphin communities, marine mammals closely related to whales and porpoises, have developed simple tools and learned to pass their knowledge to other generations.