Veterinary medicine was for the first time truly separated from human medicine in 1761, when the French veterinary surgeon Claude Bourgelat founded the world’s first veterinary school in Lyon, France. Before this, medical doctors treated both humans and other animals.
Modern scientific biomedical research (experimental medicine), the basic research, applied research, or translational research conducted to aid and support the body of knowledge in the field of medicine–where results are testable and reproducible; reproducibility is the degree of agreement between measurements or observations conducted on replicate specimens in different locations by different people–began to replace early Western traditions based on herbalism, the Greek “four humours,” a now discredited (but historically important) theory of the makeup and workings of the human body, adopted by Greek and Roman physicians and philosophers, positing that an excess or deficiency of any of four distinct bodily fluids in a person directly influences their temperament and health, and other such pre-modern notions.
The modern era really began with Edward Jenner, an English physician and scientist from Berkeley, Gloucestershire, who was the pioneer of smallpox medicine. At end of the 18th century, he discovered the smallpox vaccine, the first successful vaccine to be developed. It is inspired by the method of inoculation, or the placement of something that will grow or reproduce, and is most commonly used in respect of the introduction of a serum, vaccine, or mutagenic substance into the body of a human or animal, especially to produce or boost immunity to a specific disease, earlier practiced in Asia.
Aside from Jenner’s discovery, the German physician Robert Koch’s discoveries around 1880 of the transmission of disease by bacteria, and then the discovery of antibiotics, a compound or substance that kills or slows the growth of bacteria, around 1900, marks the beginning of the modern era on medical science.