The Buran program was a Soviet Union–the “Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (“USSR”), a constitutionally socialist state that existed between 1922 and 1991, rules as a single-party state by the Communist Party with its capital as Moscow–and later Russian reusable spacecraft/ship project, or a vehicle, vessel or machine designed to fly in space, beginning in 1974 at TsAGI, a transliteration of the Russian abbreviation for Центра́льный аэрогидродинами́ческий институ́т (ЦАГИ) or “Tsentralny Aerogidrodinamicheskiy Institut,” a transliteration of the Russian abbreviation for the “Central Aerohydrodynamic Institute,” and was formally suspended in 1993.
The Buran program was a response to the United States of America, a federal constitutional republic consisting of fifty states and a federal district, on their Space Shuttle program by NASA, officially called “Space Transportation System” (“STS”), the United States government’s manned launch vehicle program from 1981 to 2011. It was the largest and the most expensive in the history of Soviet space exploration, or their discovery and exploration of outer space by means of their space technology. Development work included sending the BOR-5 flight vehicle, used to test the main aerodynamic characteristics, thermal and acoustic loads and stability for the Shuttle Buran program, on multiple suborbital test flights, and atmospheric flights of the OK-GLI (Buran Analog BST-02), a test vehicle (“Buran aerodynamic analogue”) in the Buran program. Buran completed one unmanned orbital spaceflight in 1988 before its cancellation in 1993.
Although the Buran spacecraft, GRAU index “11F35 K1,” a Soviet orbital vehicle developed by Chief Designer Gleb Lozino-Lozinskiy of RKK Energia, was analogous in function and design to the Space Shuttle by NASA–the “National Aeronautics and Space Administration,” the agency of the United States government that is responsible for the nation’s civilian space program and for aeronautics and aerospace research–and could similarly function as a re-entry spaceplane, or a vehicle that operates as an aircraft in Earth’s atmosphere, as well as a spacecraft when it is in space, the main engines during launch were on the Energia rocket, a Soviet rocket that was designed by NPO Energia to serve as a heavy-lift expendable launch system as well as a booster for the Buran spacecraft, and not taken into orbit on the spacecraft. Smaller rocket engines on the shuttle nbody provided propulsion in orbit and de-orbital burns.
The Buran orbiter which flew the test flight was crushed in the Buran hangar collapse on May 12, 20012 in Kazakhstan. The OK-GLIU resides in Technikmuseum Speyer, a technology museum in Speyer (Rhineland-Palatinate), Germany. The Buran program matched an expendable rocket to a reusable spaceplane.
See: Prehistoric medicine